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OBJECTIVES To comprehensively assess the effect of a living will on end-of-life care. Included studies were conducted in adults with and without living wills.

HR Basics: Workplace Conflict

In addition to elucidating the characteristics of conflicts, scholars of organizations and management have investigated the triggers of relationship and task conflicts in work teams. Mohammed and Angell distinguished between surface-level and deep-level diversity. Surface-level diversity refers to the extent of demographic variation in a work unit, whereas deep-level diversity purports to disparities in personality, attitudes, and values.

Both quantitative and qualitative studies of work teams provided substantial evidence that members of groups characterized by high levels of diversity experience more conflicts than their counterparts in homogeneous groups do. This finding referred primarily to the relationships between surface-level diversity and relationship conflict, showing that greater demographic diversity was associated with more relationship conflict. Members of heterogeneous work teams experienced interpersonal tensions due to cultural differences reflected in divergent beliefs and values. The basic tenet of the social categorization and social identity conceptual framework posits that people tend to define and distinguish themselves from others based on their group membership.

This process allows individuals to protect and maintain positive social identity. Notwithstanding the differences in the theoretical approaches, both explanations point to the same outcome of in-group favoritism, which accentuates preexisting stereotypes and prejudice, and enhances antagonism between diverse team members, thus increasing the odds of relationship conflicts. Mohammed and Angell extended prior research directions on the relationships between diversity and conflict in work teams. They studied the effects of two types of diversity—surface-level variation in gender and ethnicity and deep-level variation in a personality characteristic of extraversion and in perceptions of time urgency —on relationship conflict in ad hoc teams composed of business students working on a project over a period of several months.

The researchers included additional variables that could potentially moderate the negative effect of diversity on relationship conflict in the study. In line with the hypothesis, team orientation mitigated the adverse influence of gender diversity on relationship conflicts, making team members less bothered by relationship conflict in spite of gender differences.

In a similar vein, effective team processes attenuated relationship conflict triggered by deep-level diversity. The study also indicated that the effects of both types of diversity on conflict decreased over time. Conceivably, team members have learned how to deal with conflict; alternatively, in order to avoid relationship conflict, they minimized contact and interactions with diverse individuals in the work group. This concept refers to hypothetical dividing lines that split a group into subgroups and give rise to polarization between in-group and out-group identities.

Faultlines may be activated by a single salient attribute in a specific context—for example, age in dealing with issues of pensions; parent company affiliations in joint ventures; race, ethnicity, or gender while dealing with affirmative action; or nationality when transnational teams meet face-to-face. An underlying premise of the faultline model states that the intergroup dynamic between socially diverse subgroups yields stronger effects on conflict than the intergroup dynamic between individuals from different social groups yields.

Distributed teams will be compared with their collocated counterparts. Geographically dispersed teams have become an increasingly prevailing work group arrangement, capturing the attention of organization scholars. Some of this work revolved around group dynamics, especially conflict processes in such teams as contrasted with their collocated counterparts.

Research findings have indicated that the former experienced more relationship and especially task conflicts than the latter experienced. This result can be partially explained by the lack of shared identity in geographically distributed teams, which erodes trust and a sense of loyalty toward distant team members, leading instead to interpersonal tensions among geographically separated team members—namely, to relationship conflict. Greater propensity for task conflict in distributed teams in comparison to collocated teams was attributed to paucity of shared context—namely, standardized work processes, tools, and systems.

Lack of shared work procedures precipitates misunderstandings and divergence in approaches and interferes with coordination efforts, thus enhancing task conflict in distributed teams. Both shared identity, which may moderate relationship conflict, and shared context, which may attenuate task conflict, require spontaneous information exchange among team members.

Such open communication processes appear more problematic in distributed than in collocated teams. Based on a study of research and development teams in two U. Shared identity, in turn, strengthens psychological bonds between distant members, thus moderating relationship conflict. In a similar vein, open and spontaneous communication helps to clarify common work procedures, thereby contributing to shared context, which then mitigates task conflict.

The researchers have also found that open information exchange has an independent moderating effect on the relationships between geographical distribution and conflict; it helps to identify conflict as well as to handle it. Comparison between distributed and collocated teams revealed that distributed teams benefit more from spontaneous communication than their collocated counterparts do.

Presumably, distributed teams are more vulnerable to conflict and especially to its escalation; hence, they may need more active approach to conflict detection and management. As indicated earlier, conflicts in work teams constitute prevalent experiences of team members. Thus far, we have illuminated the nature of this frequent phenomenon in work groups, presenting two major types of conflicts—relationship conflict and task conflict—and some of their main antecedents, such as team diversity and geographical distribution.

Conversely, constructive ways of dealing with conflicts may help recognize interpersonal problems in work teams, facilitate tracing mutually beneficial solutions, boost motivation to engage interpersonal tensions, build interpersonal trust, and improve team performance. How do work teams manage the everyday reality of internal conflicts?

The next part of this research-paper moves to explore the dynamics of conflicts in work teams: various approaches to managing internal discords and their developmental course while emphasizing the distinction between constructive and destructive processes. This research-paper follows the fundamental assumption—advanced by conflict and organization scholars—that effectiveness of work teams stems to a large extent from the quality of their internal relationships.

Hence, thorough understanding of orientations, approaches, and actual conflict management behaviors in work teams is deemed to be essential. In an attempt to elucidate the dynamics of conflict in work teams, we first delineate several prevailing conceptual frameworks analyzing conflict management and stressing their application in research on work teams. Then we proceed to explicate the factors governing the choice of various conflict handling patterns, highlighting the antecedents of constructive in contrast with destructive conflict management processes.

Conflict management refers to behaviors team members employ to deal with their real and perceived differences, some relating to emotionally driven conflicts relationship conflicts and others addressing the more substantive elements of their discords task conflicts. Most studies on interpersonal conflict management patterns have adopted the Dual Concern Model, originally proposed by Blake and Mouton later adopted with some modifications by several scholars: Pruitt and Rubin , Rahim , and Thomas The basic tenet of this model postulates that the conflict management mode employed by an individual emanates from two underlying motives: concern for self and concern for the other party.

Desivilya and Eizen proposed an integrated conceptual framework designed to portray conflict management in work teams. It incorporates the specific conflict management strategies that emerged from the Dual Concern Model with elements of the theoretical frameworks derived from research on conflict in close relationships Fincham, ; Rusbult, The patterns identified in these studies captured two fundamental dimensions of dispute management: engagement-avoidance and constructiveness-destructiveness.

Conflict engagement entails overt confrontation of conflict issues, whereas avoidance reflects evasion rather than directly addressing conflict issues. The engagement style of conflict management is exemplified by statements of personal criticism, threats, disclosing information about oneself, and suggesting potential solutions of the problem, while avoidance is demonstrated by changing topics for discussion or postponing discussion. The other global dimension of conflict approach pertains to the potential outcome of conflict management behavior—namely, whether it is constructive or destructive to the relationship between the partners or group members.

Constructive actions reflect cooperative and prosocial behavior aimed at preserving relationships. In contrast, destructive behavior is denoted by antisocial, competitive behavior that is potentially disruptive to the relationship or that reduces the odds of repairing the bonds. Joining components of the dual concern model with the bidimensional model identified in the close relationships context allows a wider representation of individual choices in handling intrateam conflicts. The integrated model comprises five patterns according to which individual members may manage intrateam conflicts: a dominance engaging-destructive ; b integration engaging-constructive ; c compromising engaging-moderately constructive ; d obliging avoiding-constructive ; and e avoidance avoiding-destructive.

The obliging and avoidance patterns which are low on concern for self constitute reactions of avoiding intrateam conflict situations, in contrast with the dominance, integrating, and compromising patterns high to moderate on concern for self , which entail conflict engaging behaviors. With respect to the second global dimension constructiveness-destructiveness , the consequences of the dominating and avoiding patterns low on concern for others are presumably more destructive to the relationships among the team members in comparison to the potentially constructive ramifications of the integrating, compromising, and obliging patterns high to moderate on concern for others.

Tjosvold , has embraced a somewhat different theoretical approach in his extensive program of research on conflict in work teams. According to this conceptual perspective, individuals may then communicate to the other party either cooperative or competitive intentions. Thus, if they believe that their own goals are positively linked to the goals of the other side, they will most likely adopt the cooperative conflict management strategy, allowing all the parties to pursue and attain their goals.

Conversely, if protagonists involved in a conflict situation view their goals as negatively associated—namely, if they perceive that accomplishing the goals by one party makes the counterparts less likely to attain their goals—they will tend to embrace the competitive strategy. Ayoko et al. According to these scholars, cooperative approach to conflict is reflected in attempts to communicate with the other team members in ways that promote convergence and inclusion in their interpersonal interactions.

Efforts to use common language, clarifying the meaning of messages and discussing familiar topics, illustrate such cooperative tendencies. By contrast, divergent communication designed to exclude some team members from interpersonal interactions represents competitive orientation to conflict management, demonstrated by use of specific dialect or accent, talking about unfamiliar subjects, and reluctance to provide clarification.

We now turn to address the potential precursors of these two distinct approaches to conflict management, based on existing research findings. Relatively limited number of studies examined the processes of conflict management and their antecedents in work teams. These researchers showed that cultural diversity affected the way that team participants approached conflict. Members who constituted the cultural mainstream tended to ignore and exclude their minority counterparts from intrateam interactions, especially at the initial phases of the group process.

But in frustration a single motive is brought before the goal is reached. In goal conflict two or more motives brought one another. Where the individuals are motivated to approach two or more positive but mutually exclusive goals. Where the individual is motivated to approach a goal and at the same time is motivated to avoid it. The single goal contains both positive and negative characteristics for the individual. Role Conflict and Ambiguity is closely related to the concept of norms.

Role is defined as a position that has expectation evolving from establish norm. Most of the Role Conflict in an organization steam from expectation and demands of the person in the position. Generally we come across Role Conflict and Ambiguity in the position of a supervisor. His role is both a part of the management and one set of expectation of the role. This set of expectation is exclusively based on his values and attitude but as a supervisor, he is to keep link between management and workforce. Conflict arises because of this dual position, he holds in the organizational setting.

Filly and House conclude after an extensive review of the research on organisational role conflict that it has undesirable consequences but may be the lesser of two evils. This conflict could easily be resolved by granting the final decision making authority. Filly and House also report that research indicates the extent of the undesirable effects from role conflict depends upon four measure variables:.

Avoidance is withdrawal from the conflict or failure to take a position on it. The employees involved make no attempt to understand or correct the cause of the conflict. The human resources manager, when asked to help resolve it, denies its existence. In accommodation, employees overlook their own concerns and allow the other employees involved in the conflict to obtain what is important to them. Differences are downplayed in the attempt to reach an agreement.

The accommodating HR manager, concerned with a quick fix for the problem, rolls the issues together and decides what will be the best, most quickly achievable solution.

Workplace Conflict Resolution: Selected full-text books and articles

Each employee strives to obtain his or her objectives, to win even at the expense of the other employee s. Employees using the compromise method are willing to give up part of their own objectives in order to resolve the conflict. Compromising HR managers obtain concessions from each employee and guide the negotiations until a settlement is reached.

This settlement may not fully satisfy either employee, but both agree that it is the best resolution for the conflict. During collaboration, a mutual problem is resolved. During the collaboration process, trust and openness are required because attempts are made to identify and resolve concerns underlying the conflict. Trust and openness, in turn, are increased through the process. The HR manager involved in a collaboration works along with the employees to find the best possible solution.

Conflict Resolution Essays (Examples)

Before selecting a method of resolving a particular conflict, the HR manager must consider the nature of the conflict and the likely consequences of the solution. Again, keep in mind that successful conflict resolution always benefits the organization. In general, collaboration and accommodation are desirable methods because they promote employee cooperation and harmony. But because such methods may be time-consuming and may produce results that are not entirely satisfying to any of the employees involved, these methods are inappropriate in some cases.

But confrontation is also a learned, step-by-step process or sequence of events that is used by two parties who are in conflict and who are trying to resolve their differences. Both parties are willing to use a clearly defined confrontation process and problem- solving framework i. Often, the conflict is resolved in this step. If not, both parties must proceed to Step 4. The parties should try to describe their own feelings, opinions, reactions, and fears in relation to the conflict.

A key objective of this step is determining the cause of the conflict. If the two parties cannot agree on the cause of the conflict, then the confrontation has failed. Upto this point, both parties have been involved in defining the problem and sharing information. In Step 5 the parties attempt to devise specific means of reducing or eliminating the cause of the conflict.

If both parties agree on a solution, then the confrontation has been successful. After the solution has been implemented, both parties should plan regular checks at specific times in the future to ensure that their agreements are being kept. A successful confrontation can have many positive outcomes for the parties involved and the larger organization: a good solution to a problem, increased work productivity, a raised level of commitment to decisions by both parties, a willingness to take greater risks in the future, and a more open and trusting relationship between the parties.

The collaboration process as well as the methods of conflict resolution described above, is primarily for use in solving conflicts between individuals or small groups. Labour disputes are a typical example. There are two basic strategies for resolving conflicts between large organizations.

(DOC) CONFLICT MANAGEMENT-revised Final Research-paper[1] | Augustus Kwaidah - dufevenuqugi.gq

In both approaches a neutral third party acts as a mediator for the parties in conflict. He or she meets not with the conflicting groups, but with an individual representative from each. These representatives do not deal directly with each other, but communicate through the facilitator. The facilitator plays an active role in the resolution process by identifying areas of agreement as well as disagreement between the groups and guiding the representatives toward an acceptable solution.

Before holding any meetings with both representatives, the facilitator meets with each individually to prepare him or her to meet the opponent. Each representative is encouraged to be open-minded, positive, and constructive. With the information obtained from the two representatives, the facilitator drafts possible solutions and presents them to the representatives. In this approach, the group members attend meetings and are actively involved in the process, and disputants deal with each other directly.

In this strategy, as in the first a neutral person helps the groups through a programme of steps that help them identify and resolve their differences. In this approach, however, this neutral third party plays a less active role. Instead, it is the representatives of the conflicting groups, called the facilitators, who lead the meetings and guide the groups toward as resolution.

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The facilitators establish the sequence of speakers within their groups to maintain order during meetings. After a solution has been achieved, the facilitator should arrange follow-up meetings to ensure that the changes have been implemented.


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Exhibit 1 contrasts the circumstances when the interpersonal facilitator approach and the interface conflict-solving approach are most appropriate. Conflicts, an inevitable part of life in the workplace, are generally regarded as a negative force that creates tension, lowers productivity, and disrupts employee relationships. As a result, human resources managers, who are frequently called upon to resolve employee conflicts, often regard them with dread. But for the human resources manager who learns to resolve them skillfully, conflicts can become, instead, welcome opportunities to improve and benefit the workplace.

Following Alfred Adler in several ways, Eric Berne, a psychiatrist from San Francisco, also was rejected by traditional psychoanalysts; when he applied for membership in a psychoanalytical society he was not accepted. His revenge was inventing transactional analysis, or TA. Berne had his own weekly meeting on Tuesday or TA analysis which began at in the evening if you rang the bell at according to one of his colleagues, the door remained shut and finished at The experience of psychoanalysts seems to suggest that people function best in small groups of dedicated individuals.

When the group members, who usually go through some form of baptism to gain admission, know enough, they go elsewhere to spread the word. This is good for the populace, who get a choice in terms of therapies, but bad for prophets and psychoanalysts. Transactional analysis is a system of individual and social psychiatry which is concerned with the psychology of human relationships.

In Games People play Berne describes 36 scripts people have devised to govern their transactions—the rules they play by.

She did……. In presenting the idea that people tend to spin out their lives by engaging in certain games, Berne strips the surface innocence of conventional relations and reveals what is simmering just below the surface in most human encounters. To explain games, Berne makes use of the idea that each individual has a limited repertoire of ego states. In talking about the Child ego state, Berne is careful to avoid the words childish and immature. In the Child are to be found intuition, creativity, and spontaneous drive and enjoyment.

The Adult is essential for survival because of its reality-testing function, which enables it to process and analyze data and compute probabilities. The Parent has two functions: It enables an individual to assume the role of parent, and it automates many decisions. According to Berne, these three aspects of personality are necessary for survival.

Sales people are professional games players, as the following example provided by Berne illustrates:. Analysis of this transaction is shown in figure. Limited resources 2. Departmentalization and Specialization 2. Environmental Change 2. Functional Versus Dysfunctional Conflict 2. The consequences of Dysfunctional conflict 2. Changes within groups 2. Emphasis on loyalty 2. Rise in autocratic leadership 2. Focus on activity 2. Forms of conflict in organization 2. Inter organizational conflict 2. Inter group conflict 2. Inter personal conflict 2. Intra personal conflict 2.

Role conflict 2. Intra-sender conflict 2. Inter-sender role conflict: 2. Inter role conflict: 2. Person role conflict 2. Role- Over load conflict 2. Strategies for managing conflict 2. Clarification of goals and objectives 2. Resource distribution 2. Personnel policies and procedures 2. Non- monetary rewards 2. Group activities 2.

Managing conflict through stimulation 2. Communications 2. Heterogeneity 2. Competition 2. Managing conflict through resolution 2. Problem solving 2. Subordinate goals 2. Expansion of resources 2. Avoidance 2. Forcing 2. Smoothing 2. Compromise 2. Third-party conflict resolution 2.

Types of third-party intervention. First and foremost thanks to the almighty God, who permits the smooth accomplishment of this research and this come true with his great contribution Next I would like to express my deepest gratitude for my parents for their support in many aspects. Thirdly, I would like to address thanks for my advisor Mr. Abdulaziz A.


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In addition to this, thanks go to the manager and employees of Aleta land polypropylene bag factory in Hawassa who had given immediate and valuable responses in both questionnaires and interviews. The market place, with its increasing competition on globalization, magnifies different among people in terms of personality, values, attitudes, perceptions, languages, culture, and national background, with the increasing diversity of the workforce.

Furthermore, comes potential incompatibility and conflict. Estimates show that managers spend about 21 percent of their time dealing with conflict. That is the equivalent of one day every week, and conflict management skills are a major predictor of managerial success. Not all conflict is bad. In fact some types of conflict encourage new solutions to problems and enhance the creativity in the organization.

In these cases, managers will want to encourage the conflict. Therefore, managers should stimulate functional conflict and prevent or resolve dysfunctional conflict. This is the key to conflict management. However, the difficulty lies in trying to text the difference between dysfunctional and functional conflict. The consequences of conflict can be positive or negative. Nelson and Debra, Nelson and Debra identify different form of conflict in the organization including inter organizational, inter group, interpersonal and intra personal conflict.

Avoiding, accommodating, competing, compromising, and collaborating. One way of classifying styles of conflict management is to examine the styles. Robbins and Stephen, This research will focus on conflict between groups or individuals in Aleta land polypropylene bag factory. In general the main purpose to conduct this study is that conflict seriously affects performance and disorders the goals and objectives of the organization.

While conflict management is very important to run smoothly the organizations activities. Aleta land polypropylene bag factory as an organization has a group of individual who have different interests and unique characteristics shaped by cultural, social and biological background under the same goal and objective of the organization. This situation with other conflicting factors put the interaction among individual and groups within the organization.

Conflict is inevitable at all levels of the organization. It is obvious that conflict occurs within an organization. The occurrences of conflict have an effect on the overall performance and disorder the goals and objectives of the organization. Therefore to result in a positive effect, conflict need to be managed carefully.

The general objective of the study was to assess conflict and conflict management in case study of Aleta land propylene bag factory SNNPR, Hawassa. The study finding can have a base line data to the other researcher who will conduct similar studies and benefit to Aleta land polypropylene bag factory employees to manage conflict. It contributes piece of knowledge about conflict management in organization.

It is also benefit to a researcher to develop the knowledge of conducting research work and to put the theoretical knowledge in to practice. Hence, it is difficult to assess the attitude of the whole employees and also due to time, budget and respondents constraint,40 employees taken in to consideration as representative of targeted population. The research design used in the study was basically descriptive in nature.

Descriptive research permits the explanation of phenomena. A survey research was used in this study to investigate conflict management and its practice of employees in Hawassa a case study of Aleta land polypropylene bag factory. The study was adopt both quantitative and qualitative research approach which to find out the sources of conflict and used to resolve conflict in the organization ,would be attained using quantitative approaches ,the postive and negative outcomes of conflict was measured by qualitative approach.

The data type used for conducting this study was both quantitative and qualitative type of data that collected from primary and secondary source of data. Primary data were raw data which was gathered by using questionnaires and interview. Whereas, the secondary sources data were collected from organizational records, books, internets, published documents, etc..