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OBJECTIVES To comprehensively assess the effect of a living will on end-of-life care. Included studies were conducted in adults with and without living wills.

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Example IB History Extended Essay

Tigard High School Resources. International Baccalaureate IB. When do I start? Keep in mind: You should only select a subject that you have studied You should select a subject for which you have an interest You should select a subject that will allow you to showcase your ability as a researcher and as a writer Subject options: English literature , history, math, science, foreign language Spanish or French , art, theater, psychology, political science, human rights or world studies.

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Savage for a description of each subject and sample research questions. Extended Essay Basics The Components of the Extended Essay: Introduction The Introduction should include: An indication of why the topic chosen is significant and worthy of investigation An indication of why you chose this particular topic Some background information, placing the topic in appropriate context A clearly and precisely stated research question A clear concluding statement of the thesis and argument, i.

Investigation and Reasoned Argument The essential feature of the major section, or body, of the essay is the systematic development of a reasoned argument in relation to the research question, utilizing appropriate sources. Conclusion Should be clearly stated, relevant to the research question being investigated, substantiated by the evidence given, and indicate issues, unresolved questions and new questions that have emerged from the research.

Abstract Should state clearly the research question investigated, how the investigation was undertaken and the conclusions of the extended essay. Formal Presentation Information: The extended essay should be written in a clear, correct and formal academic style, appropriate to the subject from which the topic is drawn.

The length of the extended essay: The upper limit is 4, words for all extended essays. Title The title should provide a clear indication of the focus of the essay.

Abstract An abstract not exceeding words must be included with the essay submitted. The abstract should be typed, and placed immediately after the title page.

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This is capitalised to show respect. Name Extended Essay Candidate Number History 5 However, the Australian public remained fiercely opposed to the punishment of white men for the murder of Aboriginals, which was evident in the overwhelming public response and media coverage during both the first and second trials.

The hangings did not have the desired effect, rather the colonists on the frontier developed more evasive techniques for murdering Aboriginals, whilst the Australian courts reverted to lenient treatment of colonist. Importantly, this investigation demonstrates how the legal, political and social repercussions had a lasting effect on Aboriginal rights in Australia, which was seen in the exclusion of Aboriginals from the census following the federation of Australia.

This highlights how public opinion and media had the capacity to influence and overpower the Australian Government and courts in relation to the treatment of Aboriginals, and ultimately secured their unequal position in modern Australian society. Upon arrival, they declared terra nullius 2 , which disregarded the occupation of the Aboriginals for over 40, years.

Much more than documents.

Although the Aboriginals gave some resistance to the invasion of the white convicts through hostile attacks, the convicts maintained the view that the Aboriginals held no claim over the land 3. In , The Sydney Herald stated: [The aboriginal society] belonged generally to every body but particularly to nobody The Aborigines. Melbourne: Oxford University Press, , Professor Henry Reynolds is a prominent Australian historian. As a revisionist historian, his work is controversial since it suggests that much of Australias history was hidden or misinterpreted, and that the British in fact invaded Australia, as opposed to the widely-held perception of settlement.

As a result, the text presents strong bias towards the Aboriginals, and portrays them as victims of the invasion of the convicts. The Sydney Herald, 5 December, 2. The article shows clear bias towards the convicts, and the author clearly felt that the murderers should not have been punished for killing Aboriginals.

How to write an extended essay?

They argue that Name Extended Essay Candidate Number History 6 Using the claim of terra nullius, the British colonists disregarded the authority of the Aboriginal leaders and began to occupy the land without offering any compensation 5. With this attitude, the colonists validated the forcible removal of Aboriginals from their traditional lands 6. In fact, the colonists generalised that they were no more than aggressive savages who could only be controlled by violent methods 7. The degrading attitudes of the colony were already allowing for unfair treatment of Aboriginals.

The conflict on the frontier can be seen to have officially begun when Governor Phillip and armed settlers attacked a group of Indigenous people to warn them to keep away from their settlement 8. Coupled with the harsh conditions on the frontier, the fear of retaliation from the Aboriginal tribes made the colonists more insecure and anxious of the Aboriginal people 9. By , settlers were allowed to use force against them under the guise of protecting themselves Even if prosecuted, most colonists were able to escape punishment using the excuse of self-defence Despite widespread opinion, attacks from Aboriginals were normally not out of savageness, but in response to murder, rape or failure to fulfil obligations on the part of the whites The massacre of Aboriginals was not a rare event; however, such attacks were disguised under the euphemism of dispersion The white response was frequently disproportionate to the harm inflicted by the Aboriginals, with some estimates suggesting that up to 10, Indigenous Australians may have been killed in such massacres Australia was not owned by the Aboriginals before the arrival of the British, and that they consequently have no rights over it.

This book was valuable for illustrating the events that caused Aboriginals to lose their rights. Bingara: Edwards Printing, , 1. Frontier: Aborigines, Settlers and Land. The Encyclopaedia of Aboriginal Australia. Canberra: Aboriginal Studies Press, , A valuable reference for factual information on the Myall Creek massacre and massacres in general at the time, demonstrating very little bias. The Supreme Court in Sydney implemented these ideas in , but the distance to the frontier meant that the same attitudes were not adopted. The tension on the frontier mounted as the settlers felt that they were receiving inadequate protection from the Government, and had great difficulty communicating with the Aborigines The language barrier meant that Aboriginals could not understand British laws, and when arrested, could not be tried properly because the white people did not understand their language 17 Appendix A shows an attempt by Governor Davey to present the laws visually in the hope of overcoming this barrier.

The tension between the settlers and the Indigenous population was further exacerbated by the influence of newspapers, which depicted colonists as courageous pioneers who were victims of the harsh conditions on the frontier The settlers began to see themselves as helpless and isolated, and needed to defend themselves against the harsh conditions of drought, poverty and attacks from Aboriginal tribes As a result, the British colonists continued to expand across the country without regard for the rights of the Indigenous people. Background to the Area During the early settlement era, high demand for Australian wool and other products led to rapid expansion throughout New South Wales Sydney: Sydney University Press, , This book was controversial as it highlights the Great Australian Silence, presenting the idea that Australian history had been misinterpreted.

The book does not fully consider Aboriginal perspectives, using only white sources. Frontier violence and the bush legend: the Sydney Heralds response to the Myall Creek massacre trials and the creation of colonial identity. History Australia 6. Accessed September 15, Name Extended Essay Candidate Number History 8 protected the interests of squatters 21 , giving them the power to threaten and punish Aboriginals Massacres were a frequent occurrence and in - the year before the Myall Creek massacre - Aboriginals were killed in Gravesend, NSW 23 , and in January of , 40 Aboriginals were massacred at Waterloo Creek In both cases, the perpetrators were allowed to walk free.

George Gipps was appointed Governor of New South Wales in and found that communication between Sydney and Whitehall was slow and uncertain Despite the general feeling amongst the settlers, he fought for more humane policies for Aboriginal people In discussions with Lord Glenelg, Gipps agreed that conflict would be reduced if they could demonstrate that the Aboriginals and colonist were equally protected by the law In spite of his diligence in implementing policies reflecting his beliefs, the colony appeared to view Gipps as a weak governor and did not value his authority.

Gipps soon became unpopular with the colony, as they degraded any leader who attempted to improve the conditions of the Aboriginal people, viewing it as detrimental to their safety The influence of the colony became clear when Gipps instructed the Chief Protector of Aborigines that the Governments goodwill for the Aboriginals should not outweigh the focus on economic growth This 21 Squatters were those who took claim on land without legal title, usually for grazing livestock.

Massacre: Myall Creek Revisited. Delungra: Grah Jean Books, , Detailed investigation of the Myall Creek massacre, with bias towards Aboriginals. Source provided insight into the events of the massacre. Key Dates. Last modified November 15, Heavily biased site that portrays Aboriginals as victims at the hands of white colonists. The University of Newcastle. Accessed February 3, Gipps, Sir George Australian Dictionary of Biography Online.

The Australian Frontier Wars Three ex-convict men were employed on the station under Hobbs management, who would later be involved in the massacre: Charles Kilmeister, George Anderson and Andrew Burrowes The men were very isolated on the station, which caused them to adopt the same fear and prejudice as the rest of the colony: they constantly armed themselves for protection from the Aboriginals, despite the fact that they never had any problems with them The negative attitudes towards the Aboriginals were not based on experience, but fear.

The Massacre New South Wales entered a period of drought and economic difficulty around , which placed additional strain on those working on the stations on the frontier By May the drought in McIntyre region meant that 50 Aboriginals from the Wirrayaraay people had to move to a location with water 35 and Kilmeister convinced Hobbs to allow the tribe to stay on the Myall Creek station.

Based on letters from Gipps, there was no evidence that the Aboriginal tribes had done anything to provoke or harm the settlers in the area After the arrival of the Aboriginals, Hobbs and Burrowes went away from the station and left Anderson in charge, and on June 10, the men of the tribe left to work on another station cutting bark, with only the women, children and old men remaining Ringwood, McPhee Gribble, , Very useful and detailed account, covering the events before and after the massacre.

Book shows evidence of extensive research, cited in many other texts. Copies or extracts of despatches relative to the massacre of various aborigines of Australia, in the year , and respecting the trial of their murderers. London: House of Commons, , 34 Excellent primary resource containing letters and reports from Gipps and other people involved in the investigation, trial and hangings of the seven convicts. Biased to the views of those writing the letters, who were white settlers, giving important insight into attitudes and ideas of the day. Fleming and the group arrived at Myall Creek station on Sunday 10 th June , roped the remaining Aboriginals together and led them away from the station, joined by Kilmeister.

Two of the old men were shot in the stockyards, and the rest were massacred with swords At Andersons request, some of the tribe had remained behind, who were allowed to escape once the killers left; however, the men pursued and murdered them. Following this, the killers returned to Myall Creek station to burn the bodies and hide the evidence of the murders When Hobbs returned and saw the tribe missing, he questioned Anderson and Kilmeister over what had taken place, and eventually discovered the burned bodies.

After discussions with a neighbouring settler, Hobbs sent Frederick Foot to report the massacre to Sydney in July The Role of the Governor Once Governor Gipps received report of the massacre, he immediately recognised it as an opportunity to implement the new policies of the British Government and set an example of offering equal legal protection for the Aborigines Gipps sought to demonstrate to the colony that the Aborigines would receive the same treatment as the convicts, and sent Police Magistrate Edward Day with the mounted police for find the killers, who had a reputation for executing the law with justice and integrity.

Although John Fleming could not be located, Day arrested eleven of the men and reported seeing the massacred Aborigines Following the arrest, various newspapers such as the Sydney Herald accused Gipps of not adequately protecting settlers on the frontier In reality, the settlers 38 House of Commons, However, the letters between Gipps and Lord Glenelg show that Gipps was acting in direct response to the instruction of the British Government, coupled with his views on the equal importance of the lives of Aborigines Splendid ideas.

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Extended essay - Wikipedia

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