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OBJECTIVES To comprehensively assess the effect of a living will on end-of-life care. Included studies were conducted in adults with and without living wills.

In the current global economic and geopolitical conditions different states and societies can coexist quite peacefully, multinational states can develop as a unified whole, there is a full set opportunities for this, but it is not happening. Inter-ethnic conflicts, terrorism, devastating socio-cultural impacts, information warfare — all these phenomena are maintained not only and not so much by the lying on the surface economic and political motives as by latent socio-cultural, ideological and technological factors. The internal structure of social processes is of course extremely complex, especially considering the fact that there is no single culture or society that is homogeneous in its composition.

Most often, they are a mosaic of different ethnic cultures and subcultures, and each of them is characterized by its own norms and rules of communication, values and worldview. Because of this sociocultural diversity, communities inevitably come into conflict with each other. Further in this paper, we aim at discussing the foundations of cross-cultural conflicts and communication collapses, analysing the causes and sources of this processes through the prism of intercultural communication theories, as well as pay sufficient attention to the issue of solving cross-cultural conflicts and the variety of approaches to conflict resolution.

Most often, a conflict is defined as any kind of confrontation or divergence of interests. Referentially to the concept of culture, cross-cultural conflict is further defined in our work as the most acute way to resolve significant sociocultural and ethnic inconsistencies that arise in the course of intercultural interaction, which consists in counteraction of the subjects of conflict and is usually accompanied by negative emotions towards the representatives of another cultural group Hurn and Tomalin, ; Weaver, ; Avruch et al.

There are two most widely used approaches to understanding the conflict. One of them determines conflict as a clash of parties, opinions, strengths, etc. Avruch et al. Another approach understands the conflict as a clash of opposing goals, interests, attitudes and worldviews of opponents or the subjects of interaction Weaver, ; Ross, In terms of culture, conflict always involves the duel of incompatible or contradictory norms, values, priorities and motives.

Thus, underlying cultural differences are the main cause of cross-cultural conflicts, which are typically classified into Weaver, ; Hurn and Tomalin, :. The analysis of approaches to cross-cultural conflict through the theories of intercultural communication was also enhanced by referring to the reflections by Ross , who posed significant elaboration on the relations between macro and micro level theories of conflict critically connecting existing theory and data across these levels. In particular, multicultural society patterns are rather deeply studied by Song in his factor and multiple regression analysis on understanding of cultural differences and cultural expectations in interpersonal relationships.

Conclusions on conflict resolution patterns are also based here on Avruch et al. The reasons of cross-cultural conflicts and approaches to their analysis. The range of causes of intercultural conflicts is also extremely wide: the heart of the conflict can be not only the insufficient knowledge of the language and the associated with it simple misunderstanding of the communication partner, but also deeper reasons, often not clearly perceived by the participants Weaver, ; Song, In intercultural communication the causes of communication conflicts can be not only cultural differences, but also issues of power or status, social stratification, generation gap, etc.

A striking example of cross-cultural conflict is the constitutional ban on the construction of new minarets in Switzerland in a referendum of 29 November , when Opponents of minarets see them as not religious but a political symbol and call to prevent the islamization of the country. In retaliation, the unknown hackers in late November — early December subjected to cyber-attacks about Swiss sites, filling them with pro-Islamic inscriptions.

It was argued that the withdrawal of the capital of Arab and Muslim countries from the Swiss banks may have a negative impact on the economy of the country Hurn and Tomalin, This example shows that the clash of different social groups as bearers of different cultures — nations, classes, religious associations is a significant process for the society. Often an inter-group competition arises for a limited resource — territory, food, trade routes and areas of influence on the third party Weaver, The attempts to form a viewpoint about other people and explain their actions often end up and conjecturing the causes of their behavior due to lack of information Ross, A significant number of gestures, sounds, and acts of behavior as a whole is interpreted differently in different cultures.

For example, the German presented his Russian friend eight beautiful roses at his birthday, i. Thus, the intercultural conflict by itself is a conflict of world views, interpretations and attitudes inherent in certain groups. The very contradiction between the groups with incompatible goals in the fight for limited resources territory, power, prestige turns out to be only one of the stages of the conflict — the stage which is usually referred to as an objective conflict situation Avruch et al. In fact, there are contradictions between the cultural communities almost everywhere in the world — intercultural tension in the broadest sense, arising from the historical circumstances historical injustice, experience of past conflicts , the ratio of cultural and ethnic groups attitude of the majority to the minority , and the existing level of social competition Weaver, ; Hurn and Tomalin, The emergence of conflicts is also the most likely among cultures with quite dependent relationships e.

However, even in recognizing the situation as a conflict, social competition may not result in a conflict interaction Song, But if the objective conflict situation occurs, even random events due to the emotionality and sometimes irrationality inherent to intercultural relations can lead to conflict interaction as the most acute phase of the conflict Song, ; Weaver, At the same time, emergence of conflict does not mean the termination of the relationship between the communicants; it is much more likely to mean the possibility to depart from existing models of communication, and the further development of relations is possible in both positive and negative direction.

There is another stage of the conflict that should be allocated — its resolution or settlement, to the analysis of which we devote a separate section of the work. This is because they denied Creation as per the Christian context. Since Christianity was banned and the Bible was illegal. As a matter of fact, telling any of the children that he was wrong on his views would have been a breach of the constitutional rights of these children and their families. And their families could have come to the school to take action against the school.

This is because the First Amendment of the US Constitution provides freedom of speech and freedom of conscience. This means parents can hold on to any view they consider to be appropriate and proper. The Fourteenth Amendment also gives parents the right to family relationships. This means any parent can teach his or her child any idea that is considered fit by them. Therefore, it was a dangerous thing to take a stand on the topic and issue and support any of the views against the other.

In effect, the right thing to do is to move the debate from an issue of whether Creation happened or not or a competition between whether Science provides a better alternative to Religion or not. This is because the constitution and laws of the land require relativism in the society. This implies that there are no absolute truths in our generation and in our country.

Truth is based on what people value and what their cultures are. As educators, our job is therefore limited to the need to ensure that children thrive in their respective cultural systems in order to achieve the best and most appropriate goals and ends in life. This meant that the solution to this problem was to focus on the generally accepted facts and obvious truth.


Like 1 the dinosaurs existed 2 the dinosaurs are now extinct 3 deposits of the remains of dinosaurs provide fossil fuels and this is the basis for petroleum. There was a non-judgmental view of the comments and opinions of the religious child as against the secular child. This only sought to divide the class further. Then, the class had to move on to provide a lesson on the need for mutual respect.

The New World: A Clash of Cultures

This is because we might be different in the opinions and views we have as people. However, we have common values and standards that bring us together as human beings. We must respect them and focus on our lives and try to be the best we can be. Later on, they would encounter biology and advanced religion and they would have to decide what they believe. That is the essence of education — to enable people to become the best they can be within their own unique cultural and ideological framework or context.

Culture is fundamentally premised on the way people think and it is reflected by the series of values and authorities they grow to accept. This case at hand involved an issue relating to the dinosaurs, which threatened to turn into a debate on how the world came into being. This brought the religious up against the secular. However, the laws of the land mandates that there is freedom of religion and freedom to raise families. Hence, parents have the right to inculcate their values into their children.

As they grow, they would have the right to take the decision they want to take on whether to remain religious or accept scientific explanations as absolute. Animal testing stands for using animals in different scientific experiments, mostly related to medicine, pharmaceutical and beauty industry. Some animals are purpose-bred, so from the very beginning their life is meant to finish in the laboratory, others are caught in the wild or bought from the auctions.

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The general idea behind the raising of alcoholic drinking age is that it protects young people who are still incapable of accepting responsibilities, from the abuse of alcohol. It is, however, very doubtful whether it performs this function. The matter is, the more something is prohibited, the more appealing it looks for those who are….


The situation concerning the retirement age is very different in different parts of the world. Some people at the age of 70 or 80 are still in working process, they are taking care of their families, countries and business companies. The situation with the other people is different. They are fit and have good health…. Sign in Remember me for two weeks. Login with facebook Forgot your password? Introduction This paper will examine the elements of a cultural conflict that popularly occur in schools. The Incident: Evolution versus Creation In a class where learners were taught about dinosaurs and the basic elements of our world, there was the need to show that the dinosaurs inhabited our world for some hundreds of millions of years before humans showed up.

Conclusion Culture is fundamentally premised on the way people think and it is reflected by the series of values and authorities they grow to accept. References Hofstede, G. Culture: The Software of the Mind.

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When Cultures Clash

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