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OBJECTIVES To comprehensively assess the effect of a living will on end-of-life care. Included studies were conducted in adults with and without living wills.

Case Studies and Management Resources

IMF's staff measure progress through its capacity development to member countries by the difference it can make to people's lives. Below are some of the case studies which bring these achievements to life and show how countries' policies, supported by capacity development, are put into practice.

The Salvadoran authorities wanted to develop a strategy to enhance financial stability through stronger financial oversight and improved crisis prevention and management. The IMF worked with the government to thoroughly review the financial sector.

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The resulting reform strategy focused on improving risk-based supervision, a strong crisis management framework, and a modernized securities market. Around stakeholders participated in a National Forum on Financial Stability to garner broader support for reform efforts and have an open dialogue on the best way forward for moving ahead with institutional reform. The Salvadoran government continues to work with the IMF to implement recommendations on crisis prevention and management that enhance financial stability and oversight.

FSSRs assess country-specific risks, the adequacy of institutional frameworks and capacity in the areas of financial regulation, in addition to supervision and crisis prevention and management. Many developing countries do not have consistent, standardized data to report on and assess the health and soundness of financial institutions and their counterparts, such as households and corporations. This hinders the authorities' ability to understand what policies are necessary for safeguarding financial stability to promote growth and to attract international investment, as investors use such indicators to gauge macroeconomic stability.

Using a regional approach, the IMF aided numerous countries in Africa and the Asian and Pacific regions to develop financial soundness indicators FSI in line with international standards.

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Several intensive regional workshops — funded by the United Kingdom and Japan — helped officials become familiar with the indicators' methodology and data template, using a peer-to-peer learning approach. The IMF also worked with individual countries to support adoption of the indicators. Such efforts were successful even in fragile states, such as South Sudan, which helped facilitate supervision of the financial and non-financial sectors in this fledgling economy. Member countries work with the IMF to compile and disseminate data based on internationally-accepted statistical methodologies.

The resulting data provides the foundation for economic analysis and decisions by policy makers and helps promote transparency. To support its reform and opening-up efforts, Myanmar needed to significantly boost its capacity in macroeconomic management, essential for maintaining macroeconomic stability and achieving sustainable, inclusive growth. After careful reviews of Myanmar's needs and constraints, the IMF developed holistic capacity development programs, including training, largely funded by Japan, the European Union, and other development partners, targeting the most critical areas of reform.

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Myanmar has reformed its central bank and foreign exchange market, developed monetary policy tools, set up a large taxpayer office, began modernizing tax collection and expenditure management, strengthened the anti-money laundering regime, established a macroeconomic monitoring group, and built a statistics program, including a redesigned consumer price index.

With these and many other reforms, Myanmar has managed to lower inflation, boost financial access, increase government revenue, and achieve strong economic growth since However, many challenges remain, such as the lack of experienced, specialized staff.

Improving fiscal management is a key priority of the Plan Senegal Emergent, aimed at transforming the country into an emerging market. The Senegalese authorities called on the IMF to help them address core weaknesses in tax administration, including an outmoded and fragmented organizational structure, insufficient automation, and ineffective audit and enforcement. The project focused on modernizing the organizational structure, strengthening the tax administration's headquarters functions, improving compliance controls for large and medium-sized taxpayers, and ensuring robust IT support for all core processes.

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The IMF's Regional Technical Assistance Center for West African francophone countries provided critical and complementary assistance to set up medium-sized taxpayer units and improve audit capacity. By good progress had been made. The tax administration's head office and regional directorates now have a sound organizational structure.

There are full-fledged large and medium-sized taxpayer offices that account for a large proportion of tax collection, and electronic filing procedures are in place. These changes have helped Senegal maintain a tax revenue ratio of 20 percent of GDP, outperforming regional peers. Building sustainable financial and monetary institutions and fortifying administrative capacity has been challenging in the West Bank and Gaza WBG given the tense political and economic environment.

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